This and a similar crisis in France were settled by a compromise. Election by the cathedral chapter was to be free; lay investiture was waived, but homage before the bestowal of the fief was allowed. Meanwhile Paschal, at odds with the German king Henry V, who was demanding imperial coronation, suddenly offered to renounce all church property held by the king if lay investiture were also abandoned. Henry accepted, but the bishops refused the terms; thereupon the King seized the Pope who, under duress, allowed lay investiture.
Origins Martyrdom of St. Ignatius, bishop of Antioch appointed by Saint Peter. Catholic katholikos in Greek with a small c means universal or not narrow-minded, partial, or bigoted. General usage, both within and outside the Church, is that Catholic with a capital C refers to that historical Christian church, continuous with the Apostles and currently centered in Rome.
Catholics claim to be founded by Jesus the Christ and to be the authentic declaration of the good news of Jesus Christ throughout the centuries. The Church is composed of eight distinct rites or traditions with the Pope as its leader.
Each of these rites has its own set of customs, laws, ways of worship, doctrinal emphases, languages, and communal traditions. In general these reflect the Eastern Roman Empire which is composed of the rites acknowledging the Pope in Rome and Christian churches who do not acknowledge his full authority.
The Roman or Latin Rite, which has its origins in the Western Roman Empire, is by far the largest and most well known of these traditions. Some mistake this Rite to be the only representative of the Catholic Church.
This mistake is made because of its size and because it has the Bishop of Rome as both its Patriarch and its Pope. The first breach was in the eleventh century between Eastern Orthodox Christianity centered in Constantinople and Western Christianity centered in Rome. The Catholic Church is a currently a worldwide organization made up of one Latin Rite and 22 Eastern Rite particular Churches, all of which have the Holy See of Rome as their highest authority on earth.
It is divided into jurisdictional areas, usually on a territorial basis. The standard territorial unit is called a diocese in the Latin Rite and an eparchy in the Eastern Rites, each of which is headed by a bishop. At the end ofthe total number of all these jurisdictional areas or "Sees" was 2, There were persecutions under NeroDomitian, Trajan and the other Antonines, Maximin, Decius, Valerianand Diocletian and Galerius; Decius ordered the first official persecution in In the East the church passed from persecution directly to imperial control inaugurated by Constantine, enshrined later in Justinian's laws.
In the West the church remained independent because of the weakness of the emperor and the well-established authority of the bishop of Rome. From the ninth century to the church was free for centuries from grave interference from civil rulers. Charlemagne was the exception. In the chaotic ninth and tenth centuries every part of the church organization, including the papacy, came under attack from the secular rulers.
The restoration of order began in monasteries ; from Cluny a movement spread to reform Christian life. This pattern of decline of religion followed by reform is characteristic of the history of the Roman Catholic Church; the reform goals have varied, but they have included the revival of spiritual life in society and the monasteries, and the elimination of politics from the bishops' sphere and venality from the papal court.
Saint Bernard of Clairvaux and the Cistercians revived practical mystical prayer. Gratian founded the systematic study of the Canon Law, and medieval civil law began its development.
Also in the twelfth century, Peter Abelard and other thinkers pioneered the rationalist theology. From early rationalist theology and from the teachings of Aristotle developed the philosophies and theologies of Saint Bonaventure and Saint Thomas Aquinas.
This was the work of the new thirteenth-century universities ; to them, and to the friars—the Dominicans and Franciscans—who animated them, passed the intellectual leadership held by the monasteries. Saint Dominic 's order was formed to preach against the Albigenses a campaign that also produced the Inquisition.
The vast popular movement of Saint Francis of Assisi was a spontaneous reform contemporary with the papal reform of the Fourth Lateran Council.
The thirteenth century saw also the flowering of Gothic architecture.
Then came the Avignon residence—the so-called Babylonian captivity of the papacy —a time of good church administration, but of excessive French influence over papal policy.
Except for isolated voices, such as that of Saint Catherine of Sienathe church seemed to lose energy, and a long period devoid of reform began.
A long-enduring schism and a series of ambitious councils followed. The Protestants aimed to restore primitive Christianity as described in the Bibleand they succeeded in weakening the hold of the church in all of Northern Europe, in Great Britainand in parts of Central Europe and Switzerland.
Politics and religion were completely intertwined as in England, Scotlandand France.By accepting this message, you will be leaving the website of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. This link is provided solely for the user's convenience. Second Edition English Translation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church with Index, Cross-references and Search Utility.
part one: the profession of faith. section two i.
the creeds. chapter three i believe in the holy spirit. article 9 "i believe in the holy catholic church". Much contemporary Catholic missionary work has undergone profound change since the Second Vatican Council of , with an increased push for indigenization and inculturation, along with social justice issues as a constitutive part of preaching the Gospel..
As the Catholic Church normally organizes itself along territorial lines and had the human and material resources, religious orders.
A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to proselytize or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development.
The word "mission" originates from when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem (nom.
missio), meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". Statistics and graphs (Occurrences: Words: ) PROLOGUE. I. The life of man - to know and love God; II. Handing on the Faith: Catechesis; III. The Aim and Intended Readership of .